“What causes backfire through exhaust?” is a frequent inquiry with many answers. Yet, the most common reason for an exhaust backfire is an imbalance in the air-fuel ratio during combustion.
This imbalance may occur due to an exhaust leak, worn valves, or other reasons. This article will help you diagnose the cause of backfires and suggest ways to avoid them in future.
- 1 What Causes Backfire Through the Car Exhaust? (6 Reasons)
- 2 How Can You Fix a Backfire Through Exhaust? (4 Solutions)
- 3 Conclusion
What Causes Backfire Through the Car Exhaust? (6 Reasons)
A backfire through the car exhaust is caused if the combustion mixture has the wrong air-to-fuel ratio. This imbalance happens when there are problems with fuel ignition or injection systems. Leakage in the exhaust system, damaged valves, or inaccurate valve timing are additional reasons for backfires.
Improper Ratio of Air and Fuel in Combustion Mixture
If your car experiences a backfire through exhaust when starting or driving, there might be a problem with the air and fuel ratio. The combustion chamber requires a balance in air and fuel quantity. When the air or fuel quantity increases, car backfiring is obvious.
There are two scenarios, i.e., backfire because of a rich mixture, and backfire due to a lean mixture. A combustion mixture running rich means the fuel quantity is higher than the air. You can also see it as excess fuel that the engine cannot burn.
In this case, the engine burns the fuel slowly, and the exhaust valves spit out unburned fuel. The fuel moves into the manifold, and when it comes in contact with a hot catalytic converter or other exhaust parts, it causes an exhaust system to backfire.
The following factors lead to a rich air/fuel mixture:
- A clogged air filter prevents the correct quantity of air from entering the combustion chamber
- Injection of more fuel in the chamber because of a damaged oxygen sensor
- Driving in regions with high air density, for example, at high altitudes
- Low air quantity because of a damaged mass air flow sensor
- A faulty fuel system component
The car may also backfire if it has a lean combustion mixture. It can also answer, “What causes a car to backfire on acceleration?” A lean mixture means the air quantity is higher than what the fuel requires.
It happens when there is a malfunctioning fuel delivery component. The lean fuel-air mixture may burn slowly or fail to ignite. Even if it ignites, the flame extinguishes without burning all fuel in the chamber.
The valve pushes the unburned fuel into the exhaust system. The fuel ignites when it receives heat from the hot manifold or other parts and backfires. Both scenarios harm the car because the backfire can damage the muffler or catalytic converter. You will also hear a loud noise while driving, and the check engine light will illuminate.
Issues With Fuel Injection System Parts or Engine Timing
The fuel injecting system has many parts, and damage to any component can cause backfire. For instance, if your car has a bad fuel injector, it does not allow accurate fuel flow into the combustion chamber In that case, the fuel does not burn completely and moves into the exhaust. The fuel burns in the exhaust, and you hear an explosion.
The fuel injector malfunctions if it gets clogged due to dirty or poor-quality fuel. It can also stop working if the fuel pressure is unsuitable or has an electrical issue. Fuel system components, like fuel filters and fuel pumps, can also wear over time. These components have essential roles, so the air and fuel mixture is disturbed when they stop working.
However, backfire through exhaust timing happens if the opening and closing of engine valves need to be coordinated. The intake and exhaust valves lose synchronization, and air intake and ignition get disturbed. The timing backfires, causing a delay in the ignition cycle, and the fuel ignites before the exhaust valve opens.
Damaged Spark Plugs or Carbon Tracing
Another reason for a loud backfire is a car with damaged ignition plugs. If you have worn plugs, the spark will not travel where it should and fail to ignite fuel in the combustion chamber. This way, the spark weakens and moves into another compartment and causes a backfire. Moreover, since the spark is weak, it fails to ignite all fuel, so the unburned fuel burns in the exhaust.
Another common problem with old plugs is carbon tracking or tracing. It affects the ignition timing in cars and causes a backfire through exhaust at idle. The components of the ignition system develop carbon streaks or tracks that conduct electric charge. These carbon deposits appear dark and allow bypassing because they have low resistance.
The spark finds a shortcut, and instead of traveling to the cylinder, it takes the wrong route and causes a backfire. It can also lead to problems like rough idling, misfires, and engine damage.
The carbon tracks may form due to the following reasons:
- Loss of insulation over time or cracks on ignition parts
- Accumulation of dirt or moisture on ignition components
- Increased voltage due to improperly gapped plugs or damaged coils
- Poor installation causes abrasion of wires when they come in contact with metallic parts
Broken Distributor Cap in Old Car Models
Most modern cars do not have a distributor, but you should check the cap if you own an old model. If it’s broken or cracked, the cars backfire. The cap is metal or plastic and covers the distributor. It links the ignition coils to the ignition plugs and distributes high voltage through spark plug wires.
The cap has separate terminals for each cylinder and has a rotor spinning inside. High voltage from the coil travels through the rotor into the terminals and ignites the combustion mixture in specific cylinders.
A damaged distributor cap prevents proper voltage distribution to the plugs, and the cylinders receive a weak spark. It causes misfires and incomplete combustion. The unburned fuel then moves into the exhaust and generates a loud backfire.
Sometimes the cap breaks or cracks, allowing foreign particles and moisture into the distributor. It causes electrical problems and loss of contact between the terminals and the rotor. The cylinder sparks lose synchronization and cause a backfire.
Sometimes the car backfires if the rotor gets damaged along with the distributor cap. A broken rotor does not spin, and the terminals receive inconsistent contact.
Blockage or Leakage in the Exhaust System
The exhaust system contains many parts, such as the manifold, muffler, pipes, and catalytic converter. These parts coordinate to take the hot waste gasses away from the burning chamber. If they get cracked or damaged, the system leaks exhaust gas.
The leakage disturbs the normal pressure of gasses and oxygen levels. These pressure fluctuations disrupt the backpressure and the combustion mixture.
The leaking exhaust gas might contain higher oxygen levels, resulting in a lean combustion mixture. You will hear a backfire when your car’s engine ignites this lean air-fuel mixture.
Moreover, the fuel in the lean combustion mixture might only partially burn and come into contact with the hot exhaust parts. These fuel molecules in the exhaust are also near the ignition source, so that they may backfire.
Sometimes one of the exhaust components gets clogged or damaged, which explains what causes backfire through carb. It creates back pressure and restricts the exhaust system forcing the gasses through the carburetor.
Damaged Valves or Valve Timing Issues
Intake and exhaust valves are crucial to the combustion process in your car. If these valves get damaged, they can cause backfire. For instance, carbon buildup or inadequate lubrication can cause sticky valves that do not open or close. Partially closed valves allow gasses through the exhaust system and backfire.
Another problem causing engine backfire is improperly seated valves. This scenario leads to compression leaks and premature ignition. Similarly, valves lacking enough clearance stay open, and the gasses leak. The valves may also warp because they are exposed to high temperatures. Prolonged heating causes improper sealing and escape of combustion gasses.
The valvetrain controls the valve timing so they can open and close at the correct time. Your car might be backfiring because it has incorrect valve timing. It can happen if the timing chain gets damaged. As a result, the valves lose synchronization with the piston and backfire. It can lead to premature ignition of the fuel or prolonged burning.
How Can You Fix a Backfire Through Exhaust? (4 Solutions)
You can fix a backfire through exhaust by replacing the shabby ignition plugs. You can clean the clogged fuel injectors with a brake cleaner or replace them if they appear damaged. Moreover, you can adjust the air mixture screws on the carburetor or calibrate the valve timing.
Replace the Worn Spark Plug To Prevent Backfire
Fixing the cause of backfires is essential if you’re thinking, “Can a backfire damage an engine?” The force can damage the internal engine components and the ignition system.
So if you have a bad spark plug, here is how you can fix them:
- Find a flat and even surface to park your car and open the hood.
- Disconnect the power by detaching the negative terminals of your car’s battery with the help of a wrench.
- Locate the spark plugs after consulting your car’s manual and remove them.
- Inspect the plugs and replace them with new ones. You can find economical deals with $2 to $10 per plug.
- Lastly, reconnect the battery and take your car for a test drive.
Replace the Worn Injectors To Prevent Backfire
If there’s a problem with the injectors, inspect them after parking your car and disconnecting the power. You can remove them with pliers or a wrench if they appear dirty.
Get a carburetor cleaner and brush off the dirt. However, you can use the brake cleaner if the injectors are fully clogged. You can also replace the injectors if you find any cracks or damage signs.
Adjust the Screws on Carburetor
You can easily adjust the carburetor by following these steps:
- Park your car on a flat surface and disconnect the battery.
- Locate your car’s carburetor by checking the user manual, and look for the air mixture screws. You will find them on the side of the carburetor or the Throttle Body Spacer (TBS).
- Adjust the screws by 1/8 to 1/4 turn and reconnect the power.
- Observe your car’s idle speed while inspecting the exhaust tailpipe. If black gas with a rich smell appears, turn the screws counterclockwise. But if you see blue smoke that smells lean, turn clockwise.
- While you perform these adjustments, keep an eye on the temperature gauge. If it shows engine temperature exceeding the red zone, let the engine cool before proceeding.
Calibrate the Valve Timing To Avoid Backfire
If you suspect an inaccurate valve timing, you must consider many underlying possibilities. The fixing technique depends on the actual cause of timing disruption.
The steps below will help you get rid of the backfires:
- Identify the problem by determining whether you have advanced or retarded timing.
- Inspect the marks on the camshaft or crankshaft pulley and see if they are aligned.
- After identifying the fault, buy the parts that need replacement. For example, you must replace the timing chain if it’s damaged.
- Adjust your car’s engine to the top dead center and remove timing components.
- Align the marks on your engine’s crankshaft and camshaft to synchronize the pistons and valves.
- Install new components, such as a timing belt and recheck the timing marks.
- Test your car’s engine after the adjustments or replacement.
Now that you know what causes backfire through exhaust and how to fix it, you should not wait any longer.
Consider the following and repair your car:
- Stuck or clogged fuel injectors and valves can lead to a rich or lean combustion mixture that causes backfire.
- Defects in the ignition system, such as carbon tracing and damaged spark plugs, leave unburned fuel that burns in the exhaust.
- You can replace or clean the damaged injection and ignition system parts or adjust the valve timing and carburetor.
Backfire through the exhaust system can distract the drivers and damage the exhaust components and engine in the long run. Therefore, you should get it fixed at the earliest.
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