The answer to “why does the caliper piston won’t compress” is a worn caliper hose or corrosion, and you can retract using compression tools.
This article contains all reasons and fixes to repair the stuck caliper pistons.
- 1 Why Does the Caliper Piston Fail To Compress? 4 Causes
- 2 How To Repair a Caliper Piston That Won’t Compress?
- 3 Conclusion
Why Does the Caliper Piston Fail To Compress? 4 Causes
The caliper piston fails to compress because corrosion damages the surface. Problems with the brake boot or brake seal can cause low hydraulic pressure and leakages and prevent the piston from retracting. Moreover, a faulty caliper hose or wrong wind-back practices are common reasons.
– Seized Corroded Brake Caliper
The caliper must compress to slow down or stop the car. If the caliper or its pistons corrode, the brake will fail to perform its function. It will happen because the brake caliper pistons won’t make contact with the brake pad.
When you press the pedal of the hydraulic brakes, the fluid rushes into the caliper to compress it. The caliper compresses and pushes its pistons against the brake pads. It creates friction between the two parts that slows the car.
Corrosion hinders the function of brake calipers even when not spread on a large area. It usually happens in cars that are not used much.
Although the caliper is made of iron or aluminum and coated with a non-corrosive material, it may corrode due to different reasons. The rust originates from tiny patches of damage exposed to moisture or road salt.
The following reasons can contribute to the corrosion of brake calipers:
- Presence of water in the brake fluid or the use of low-quality fluid.
- The high temperature generated by the braking system scraps off the protective coating and exposes the metal to rust.
- Exposure to salt or moisture mainly in humid or cold regions.
- Brake dust collected on the brake pads traps moisture and other particles, gradually corroding the caliper.
– Broken Brake Boot or Brake Seal
The brake boot or seal can wear out with time so that the front brake piston won’t compress. The boot is a rubber covering on the piston of the brake caliper. It protects the brake’s internal components from dirt, debris, and water.
You can detect a faulty boot if your car shows the following signs:
- Low hydraulic pressure and leakage of fluid near the wheels
- Cracks, holes, or other indications of damage to the caliper
- Dust accumulated on the wheels due to broken boot
- Poor performance of car brakes
The brake seal is also essential for the proper function of the brake. It works by maintaining the hydraulic pressure of the caliper. The seal prevents the fluid from leaving the brake.
Some people think the boot and seal have the same function, but there is a slight difference. While the boot protects the brake parts from contamination, the seal maintains the hydraulic pressure.
You will observe fluid leakage and bad brake performance in case of broken seals too. Moreover, you will notice a soft or spongy brake pedal due to loss of hydraulic pressure. You can also check the brake fluid levels to confirm this issue.
– Damaged Brake Hose and Caliper Sticking
A brake hose joins the brake caliper to the brake lines on your car. Since it carries the brake fluid, it should withstand high fluid pressure. The hose is made of rubber or synthetic material.
The caliper piston won’t retract because it gets stuck due to a leakage in the hose. The hoses can get damaged over time due to various reasons. They develop cracks or holes and lose the brake fluid, hence the hydraulic pressure.
It results in bad brake performance or brake failure in severe cases. It usually occurs if you avoid car maintenance. The hose can also become brittle, especially if you live in areas with extreme climate conditions.
It makes them weaker day by day, and eventually, they collapse. The walls of these hoses can also develop defects from the inside if the fluid is contaminated.
Moreover, installation mistakes can damage the hoses before their natural aging period. If the hoses are not secured to a point, they can bend or twist and cut off the fluid flow.
– Wrong Wind-Back Practices
The wind back procedure is handy when you have to replace worn brake pads, but if it goes wrong, even a new caliper won’t compress. This process pulls back the piston to access the pads.
It is necessary because the brake pistons extend even when the pads are worn. In this process, the wind-back tool rotates the piston and pushes it back to its position.
Sometimes people do not follow the correct guidelines to perform the process. The trouble usually occurs with the rear caliper piston, so it is also a sign that can help you detect the issue.
Since the rear calipers work differently, you cannot push them back into their original position. To change the brake pads of the rear wheels, you have to twist or turn the piston and push it simultaneously.
The following wind-back problems can cause the piston to get stuck:
- Uneven pressure due to poor alignment or improper piston rotation
- Dirt or other polluted particles entering the caliper bore
- Using the wrong tools to carry out the process
- Improper lubrication of caliper
How To Repair a Caliper Piston That Won’t Compress?
You can repair a caliper piston that won’t compress using different tools. You can use the C-clamp or channel lock to retract the piston. You can also buy specific compression tools and follow the instructions. Otherwise, use a screwdriver to push the piston back.
– Use a C Clamp To Retract the Piston
If you are searching for how to compress caliper piston, an easy way is to use a C-clamp. As the name suggests, it has a C-shaped claw that you can adjust around the seized caliper and piston. It also has a screw on one end that compresses two objects when rotated.
Consult with the instructions and arrange the necessary tools before starting the repair process.
You can retract the brake caliper piston stuck outside by tracking the steps below:
- Find the caliper near the wheel, remove the brake pads, and open the brake fluid reservoir.
- Put a C clamp on top of the caliper, with one side on the piston and the other on the caliper’s rear.
- Put a wooden or synthetic material block between the piston and caliper to avoid damage.
- Utilizing a wrench or pair of pliers to rotate the clamp screw, tighten the clamp gradually.
- As you tighten the clamp, keep an eye on the piston to ensure smooth movement so it does not bend or twist.
- Up till the piston is completely pushed into the caliper, keep tightening the clamp.
- Remove the clamp, install the pads, close the reservoir, and test your car brakes.
– Use a Channel Lock To Compress the Piston
Channel locks have a similar working mechanism. You place one end on the back of the caliper and the other on the back of the brake pad and squeeze.
Although it works most of the time, it is not recommended by many because the channel slips. It can damage the caliper, piston, or the pad. But if you do not have other options, start by squeezing gently and gradually increasing the pressure.
If you do not know how to push back a stuck brake piston, it is quite easy and just like using the C-clamp. You place the channel arms around the caliper and pad, grab the channel by its handles, and compress.
If you apply high pressure the channel will slip and damage the brake parts. After compressing the piston to the desired level, you can remove the channel and reinstall the pads.
– Use a Caliper Compression Tool To Fix the Brakes
Many different tools are now available in the market for caliper piston compression. These tools make the task easy and fit a variety of conditions. They come with adapters, so you can adjust the compression limits according to your need.
Most of these tools work in the same way as the C-clamp, but there are slight variations. You should follow the instructions mentioned in the manual to avoid any mishap.
If you are planning on investing in a compression tool, make sure it is durable and safe. These tools come at good prices, so you can buy one for $10 to $30, while some high-end tools with adapters can cost up to $50 to $100. The exact cost depends on the brand, type of tool, and features.
– Use a Screwdriver To Fix the Brakes
Want to know how to compress rear brake caliper piston without tools? If you do not have any specific tools or clamps, you will always have a screwdriver in your house.
Insert the screwdriver inside the caliper window and fit it into the openings. Hold onto the screwdriver firmly and pull backward. It will move the piston a bit.
Keep going in the outward motion and slowly place the screwdriver between the pad and piston. Then you can apply low pressures to compress the piston.
Since now you know all about “caliper piston won’t compress causes how to fix,” you can diagnose and fix the brakes.
Some helpful points from this article are as follows:
- The caliper pistons do not compress due to corrosion or harmed brake parts such as boots, seals, and hoses.
- The brake caliper won’t retract if you have recently replaced the pads using the wrong wind-back procedure.
- You can fix the pistons using a tool such as a C-clamp, channel lock, or screwdriver.
Now do not waste your time, get your tools and start compressing.
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